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Hydrogels for Osteochondral
Tissue Engineering
Journal of Biomedical

(March 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Activity
& Transdermal Delivery
of GHK Peptide
Journal of Peptide Science
(March 2020)
Pulsed Glow Discharge
to GHK-Cu Determination
International Journal
of Mass Spectrometry

(March 2020)
Protective Effects of GHK-Cu
in Pulmonary Fibrosis
Life Sciences
(January 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Benefits
of GHK-Cu Stimulating
Skin Basement Membrane
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
(January 2020)
Structural Analysis
Molecular Dynamics of
Skin Protective
TriPeptide GHK
Journal of Molecular Structure
(January 2020)
In Vitro / In Vivo Studies
pH-sensitive GHK-Cu in
Superabsorbent Polymer
GHK Enhances
Stem Cells Osteogenesis
Acta Biomaterialia
Antibacterial GHK-Cu
Nanoparticles for
Wound Healing
Particle & Particle (2019)
Effect of GHK-Cu
on Stem Cells and
Relevant Genes
OBM Geriatrics
GHK Alleviates
Neuronal Apoptosis Due
to Brain Hemorrhage
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Endogenous Antioxidant
International Journal of Pathophysiology and Pharmacology (2018)
Regenerative and
Protective Actions of
GHK-Cu Peptide
International Journal of
Molecular Sciences
Skin Regenerative and
Anti-Cancer Actions
of Copper Peptides
GHK-Cu Accelerates
Scald Wound Healing
Promoting Angiogenesis
Wound Repair and

GHK Peptide Inhibits
Pulmonary Fibrosis
by Suppressing TGF-β1
Frontiers in Pharmacology
Skin Cancer Therapy
with Copper Peptides
The Effect of Human
Peptide GHK Relevant to
Nervous System Function
and Cognitive Decline
Brain Sciences (2017)
Effects of Tripeptide
GHK in Pain-Induced
Aggressive Behavior
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
GHK-Cu Elicits
In Vitro Alterations
in Extracellular Matrix
Am Journal of Respiratory
and Critical Care Medicine

Selected Biomarkers &
Copper Compounds
Scientific Reports

GHK-Cu on Collagen,
Elastin, and Facial Wrinkles
Journal of Aging Science
Tri-Peptide GHK-Cu
and Acute Lung Injury

Effect of GHK Peptide
on Pain Sensitivity
Experimental Pharmacology

New Data of the
Cosmeceutical and
TriPeptide GHK
SOFW Journal
GHK Peptide as a
Natural Modulator of
Multiple Cellular Pathways
in Skin Regeneration
BioMed Research (2015)
Resetting Skin Genome
Back to Health
Naturally with GHK
Textbook of Aging Skin
GHK-Cu May Prevent
Oxidative Stress in Skin
by Regulating Copper and
Modifying Expression of
Numerous Antioxidant Genes Cosmetics (2015)
GHK Increases
TGF-β1 in
Human Fibroblasts

Acta Poloniae

The Human Skin Remodeling Peptide Induces Anti-Cancer
Expression and DNA Repair Analytical Oncology
Resetting the
Human Genome to Health
BioMed Research
Enhanced Tropic Factor Secretion of Mesenchymal
Stem Cells with GHK
Acta Biomater
Anxiolytic (Anti-Anxiety)
Effects of GHK Peptide
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
Lung Destruction and
its Reversal by GHK
Genome Medicine
TriPeptide GHK Induces
Programmed Cell Death
of Neuroblastoma
Journal of Biotechnology
Stem Cell
Recovering Effect
of GHK in Skin
Peptide Science
Skin Penetration of
Copper Tripeptide in Vitro
Journal of International
Inflammation Research
Possible Therapeutics
for Colorectal Cancer
Journal of Clinical and
Experimental Metastasis
Methods of Controlling
Differentiation and
Proliferation of Stem Cells
Effects of
Copper Tripeptide
on Irradiated Fibroblasts
American Medical Association
Avoid Buying Fake Copper Peptides Dangerous

For Scientific Publications on Copper Peptides and Hair, go to

Long Hair Clinics - George Michael Long Hair

Hair, Laws, and Emotions

Hair fashions change rapidly and without a rational pattern. Hair styles that are out-of-favor with current fashions often evoke unexpectedly strong emotions and attempts to outlaw them are common.

Ancient Persian men considered a shaved face as absurd. But their contemporaries, the Hittites, shaved their beard, mustache, eyebrows, and patches of hair near the temples.

The Celts often shaved their beards but not their mustaches. Ancient Greeks wore beards and long hair but in the 4th century B.C., Alexander the Great ordered his soldiers to shave beards and keep head hair short. Roman law once required prostitutes to wear blonde wigs, but the Emperor Claudius' wife, Messalina, wore a yellow wig on her nightly outings. The regulation was repealed and blonde wigs became the fashion of the day. The Romans generally shaved for about 500 years, but around the year 200, beards reappeared.

This lasted until Charlemagne in 800 ordered his subjects, most of Western Europe, to shave. Beards started to return but the Bishop of Rouen warned in 1096 that men with beards were in danger of damnation.

However, women in the Middle Ages often wore their hair long with great looping braids over their ears. Women revived the blonde hair fashion and dyed their hair blonde or wore blonde wigs.

In the 1500's men's head hair was cut short but beards flourished. Women generally braided their hair and many married women revived the Orthodox Jewish custom of only showing their hair only to their husband.

In 1770, the British parliament passed a law that a marriage was voided if a man was tricked into marriage by a women using false hair, cosmetics, or high heels. This law has never been repealed.

In the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century, beards were generally shunned, but made a strong comeback during the Civil War. The World Wars of the twentieth century and military regulations caused men again to shave and shorten their hair.

Women wore their hair short and curly, as curling iron and permanents began to arrive. The actress, Veronica Lake, brought back long, wavy, seductive blonde hair after her 1941 movie, "I Wanted Wings".

But by the 1950's, both men and women were back to short hair, only to return to long hair by 1970 despite attempts by employers and schools to outlaw long hair.

Now in the 2000s, head hair has shortened but short beards and goatees have become quite popular among young men.


Caring for Your Hair

Chemical and mechanical injuries to the hair or scalp can produce a number of different effects. Tight hairstyles, hot combs, hot oil treatments, and harsh use of hair blowers can all produce damage to the hair fiber. One should be aware of potential consequences when manipulating hair and exercise caution.

The typical chemicals used to alter hair include bleaches, dyes, relaxers, and agents used for permanents. Any of these chemicals can cause some degree of hair damage but, with care, most cosmetic products produce minimal unwanted side-effects.

It is more difficult to repair damaged hair than to use gentler techniques that result in less damage to your hair. Some cosmetic products are partially beneficial in repairing damaged hair but normal quality of hair will return only after the production of new hair to replace the damaged fibers.

Factors that damage hair include the normal "weathering" that occurs to the ends of long hairs that are exposed to the environment or exposure to chlorine from swimming pools.

The apparent lightening of hair color noted to occur with individuals who have prolonged sun exposure during the summertime is an example of photochemical damage. As with other forms of damage, full reversal is often not possible.

Questions or Advice?

Email Dr. Loren Pickart at

Call us at 1-800-405-1912 Monday Through Friday (8 am to 6 pm) PST

Secrets of Growing Very Long Hair

The famous hair stylist George Michael of New York City developed successful methods to grow out very long lengths of hair in women and eventually owned 2,000 salons dedicated to long hair.

Women are often told that after they reach thirty that hair should be no longer than shoulder length. Michael felt long hair was majestic on a mature woman, did much to downplay wrinkles, made them look younger immediately.

Dr. Michael has found that it is important for growing the longest, healthiest hair possible is to have hair that's all one length - without bangs or fringes.

He says that the body will try to equalize uneven hair by excessively shedding hair. He says that "The longer the hair, the stronger the root," and this results in healthier hair.

One of his secrets was the use of acid conditioners and acid pre-treatment products use before swimming in chlorinated pools or salt water or exposing the hair to sunlight.

This kept the hair proteins very tightly bound together. He used hair dryers set only about 10 degrees F. higher than body temperature. Common blow dryers reach temperatures of up to 260 degrees. Water boils at 212 degrees. This high heat can damage hair follicles.

Large rollers of soft mesh or plastic were used for drying the hair. Velcro rollers were not used because they can tear the hair. Special care was taken to protect the ends of the hair when rolling or setting.

Hair cutting was done as one-length style using a straight blunt cut Michael felt that when hair was cut in layers, the body automatically tried to even out the hair which created extra fallout.

Shampoos were kept to a minimum. Vitamin and mineral supplements were recommended. He recommended covering hair at all times when exposed to direct sunlight.

Copper Red Haired Woman with Hair to waist
Longer Hair Reduces Shedding - Studies by Dr. George Michael
Hair Length - Inches Average Number Hairs Lost Per Day
4 87
12 26
Waist Length 16
Floor Length 2

Tips for Long, Healthy Hair

Hair experts have a number of suggestions. But remember, people who only want to cut your hair off usually know little about hair.

  • 1. Hair is best cut when dry. The detangling comb is designed to be used on damp hair. Start at the ends and work up.
  • 2. Detangle dry hair before washing. De-tangle ends first, then work your way up. Do not try to remove from top to bottom since this may pull out hair. Before entering a shower, use your your comb or brush to give your hair a few strokes. This aligns the strands, and help prevent tangles.
  • 3. For washing, bring your hair to the front before you wet it and leave it there hanging down and keep it there during shampooing. During the washing, try not to move your hair. This keeps the hair strands in position so they won't move upwards and wrap themselves around other strands, resulting in tangles. Use water of room temperature for your hair. The lowest temperature that you can use is best for hair. Warm water open the hair scales, making the hair shaft more vulnerable to damage.
  • 4. Use a minimum of a shampoo with a pH 5.0 to 6.0. Foaming the shampoo is overkill. Pour some shampoo into your palm, then rub your hands together and run the palms of your hands over your head but not yet down the string of hair. If the shampoo begins to foam, you used too much.
  • 5. The shampoo is used to remove dirt from the top layers of your hair. Don't try to wash your hair inside out - just let the shampoo suds penetrate these under layers briefly as it flows over the lower part of your hair. Use your fingers to help release the soap from your head and works the shampoo down the hair. Running your fingers down the string of hair helps detangling. Make sure that you wash out all of the shampoo. When you think all shampoo is gone, allow another half minute of constant water flow to ensure that residues are gone. Then bend over, and give a final rinse of the lower hair part with cold water.
  • 6. Use an acidifying conditioner with peptides that re-glue the hair cuticles. Such conditioners help detangle hair, add body and increase the hair's natural shine. Put extra conditioner on the hair ends to prevent split ends. Give the conditioner at least a minute to glue into the hair. For a final rinse use cool or cold water.
  • 7. Air dry your hair whenever possible and use a special highly absorbent towel for your hair. Do not dry your hair with your general bath towel.
  • 8. When you must blow dry your hair, first wrap in a towel for a time to remove most of the water. Blow dry the hair for a time, then let it air dry for a time.
  • 9. Never buy a "heavy duty reconstructor" for your hair.
  • 10. A "cool" setting on the hair dryer helps "set" the hair.
  • 11. Never brush your hair when it is wet.
  • 12. Excessive sunlight and use of tanning beds harms hair.
  • 13. Find non-alcohol hair sprays which are less drying.
  • 14. Only use wide toothed combs and picks.
  • 15. Many hairdressers only cut hair. Tell them to keep trimming to an absolute minimum. Avoid hostile or hyper-critical hairdressers.
  • 16. Only use coated or snag free elastics and hair fasteners.
  • 17. Think of your hair as a silk garment and treat it accordingly. Both silk and hair are protein fibers. You would not wash a silk garment with a cheap detergent in a washing machine at a high temperature with a high agitation cycle and then dry it in a dryer at a high temperature. Think of what a silk garment would look like after such a treatment.
  • 18. Take time for your hair. There is no product that can create wonderful hair within a few hours. Hair improvements take a few weeks.
  • 19. If someone criticizes your hair, ignore them. Hair arouses many emotions and jealousies so arrange your hair in the fashion that pleases yourself.
Degas painting with Long Hair being cared for

Use of Hair Dyes, Permanents and Straighteners

The hair's appearance can be altered by changing its color, through dying, or its shape, by permanent waving or straightening. These procedures all cause some damage to the scalp and hair follicle with should be promptly repaired with a scalp repair cream made with Copper Peptides. If damage becomes excessive, serious hair loss may occur after a few years.

Dyes - Hair dyes lighten, darken and cover gray hair. Temporary hair dyes wash out after one shampoo. Gradual hair dyes produce a color change over a two- to three-week period. These dyes generally don't cause problems.

Semipermanent hair dyes that wash out after four to six shampoos, and permanent hair dyes that don't wash out can cause allergic reactions. These products should be tested on a small area of skin behind the ear or inside the elbow for 24 hours before using. Semi-Permanents have lower amounts of ammonia and peroxide, or none at all. Semi's have a wide variety of colors but the results with your specific hair type may be somewhat unpredictable as the the final tint or shade.

Permanent hair dyes are the only product that can make hair lighter or darker and should be applied by professional salons. Ammonium persulfate, sometimes used to lighten hair, can cause both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis in some individuals. It can also cause an immediate allergic reaction of hives and wheezing. Semipermanent hair dyes that wash out after four to six shampoos, and permanent hair dyes that don't wash out can cause allergic reactions. These products should be tested on a small area of skin behind the ear or inside the elbow for 24 hours before using.

Bleaching is used to lighten hair. To get to a platinum blond from dark hair is difficult but possible. However, professional help is recommended. Several short bleachings spread out over a number of days produce better results. Remember, bleaches can burn the scalp and can damage your eyes. Commercial bleaches such as Clorox bleach should not be used. Beauty supply store sell powder bleaches such as Clairol Ultra Blue or L'Oreal Blanc ($4) and a bottles of developer ($3) that come in different strengths such as 20, 30, and 40 with 40 being the strongest and harshest.

The powder bleach and developer are mixed in a glass or plastic bowl and spoon to form a slurry which is applied to the hair. Sometimes the hair is covered with a plastic bag to speed the reaction but your head may become very hot. Finally, the head is thoroughly rinsed with cold water with special care taken not to get the bleaching mixture into your eyes.

Semi-permanent dyes that you can apply yourself include some interesting and good products.

Permanent Waving - "Permanents" make straight hair curly. A perm solution temporality breaks the disulfide bonds to allow the hair to be wrapped around a roller or into a tight curl and formed into a new texture. Then the disulfide bonds are chemically reset and the new texture is locked in-place. Hair should not be permed more often than every three months. If the perming solution is left on too long, is too strong or is applied to hair already damaged by dyes, bleaches or recent permanents, it can produce damage to your hair strand and shorten its useful life. Scalp irritation may also occur.

Hair straighteners - A technique used to make curly hair straight is called hair straightening. It is a difficult procedure using dangerous chemicals and should be performed only by hair salon professionals. The disulfide bonds that keep hair curly are broken by an alkaline reducing agent.

Hair straighteners are mostly creams or cream lotions containing about 2-4% of strong bases such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide or 5% calcium hydroxide plus a solution of up to about 30% guanidine carbonate. The pH is around 12. Some straighteners contain about 4% ammonium thioglycolate as the active ingredient. These caustic bases make the cream dangerous for the skin and eyes, and it has to be handled carefully by skilled personnel. The cream is applied to the hair, with a brush or by using protective gloves, strand by strand after dividing the hair into different areas. After a time, the straightener relaxes the hair and the curly hair is combed and becomes straight. Finally, the hair is washed thoroughly with pH neutralizing shampoo.

Alternatively, intense heat can also reset hair bonds, allowing curly hair to be straightened by ironing with a regular electric iron and an ironing board or flat surface covered with a smooth towel. This technique was very popular in the "long-hair" times of the 1960's and 70's. It is best to have someone else iron your hair straight to avoid the danger of burns.

Of course, now flat irons have become extremely common.

Shampoos and Conditioners for Dry and Oily Hair

Excessive shampooing is the main cause of damage to the hair shafts. The best shampoos for hair should be at about pH 5.5. This is at the high end of the pH range of the scalp (4.5 to 5.5) or slightly acid.

This natural acid environment of the hair and scalp helps keep the hair proteins hard and prevents the growth of foreign bacteria. The natural hair and skin oils also help maintain scalp health.

Shampoos of higher pH (more alkaline) work better to clean the hair and scalp but more alkaline shampoos strip away too many natural scalp oils and extract the "glues" that help hold the hair shafts together.

Experts say that these high pH alkaline shampoos make your hair look great for a few weeks but then cause the hair to become dry and brittle which and increases breakage of your hair. Also, avoid baby shampoos which are formulated for gentleness if they get in to the eyes but dry out the hair.

Be careful of "clarifying shampoos". They are rather harsh and intended to remove materials that build up on hair such as mousses and sprays but they also can remove color and perms.

Some hair experts recommend avoiding such shampoos and instead just mix, in your hand, plain baking soda from your kitchen with your normal shampoo and apply this to your hair to remove build up.

The foaming of shampoos is often enhanced by "flash-foamers" but foaming means that too much shampoo was used and/or the shampoo is filled with foaming chemicals. Likewise, fragrances have no positive effect on shampoos.

The test of a shampoo is what your hair looks like after using the shampoo for a week or two. Examine your hair's condition after this time. Does is seem healthy and easy to comb or is it hard to comb and limp looking?

Also check to see if the hair becomes dry and if your scalp become itchy. If a shampoo doesn't work for you, try another brand. The cost of a shampoo is not generally related to quality but to advertising.

Dry hair lacks enough natural oils. To shampoo, use a minimum amount of a mild and slightly acid shampoo. Do not over shampoo and do not repeat the shampoo application regardless of instructions.

Cosmetic companies try to increase your use of their product. If your hair is very dry, only shampoo every two to three days. Our ancestors went months between hair washing and had healthy hair.

Oily hair is more difficult to manage and shampoo. Oily hair looks moist, dull and is often difficult to comb.

The fatty substance that covers oily hair called sebum is over produced by the sebaceous glands of the hair follicle. Sebum is rapidly is restored after washing the hair.

More frequent washing with stronger, more soapy shampoos helps remove oil but damages the hair.

Retinoic acid may be used to reduce oil production. Retinoic acid also stimulates hair growth and increases follicle health. But do not overuse the retinoic acid since this can result in scalp irritation.

When finished, the shampoo should be completely rinsed from the hair to help bring the pH back down to its natural level.

Also, the detergents in shampoos are very irritating to the scalp and must be completely removed. Most experts recommend using a shower for the most complete removal of the shampoo.

Some shampoo manufacturers recommend that you comb through your wet hair to distribute the shampoo evenly into the hair. But wet hair is more easily broken way and you will only end up with worse hair.

Hair Follicles

Shampooing Dry Hair and Oily Hair

Dry hair lacks enough natural oils. To shampoo, use the minimum amount of shampoo possible and only shampoo your hair every other day.

If your hair is very dry, only shampoo every two to three days. Our ancestors went months between hair washing and had healthy hair.

Oily hair is more difficult to manage and shampoo. Oily hair looks moist, dull and is often difficult to comb.

The fatty substance that covers oily hair called sebum is over produced by the sebaceous glands of the hair follicle. Sebum is rapidly is restored after washing the hair.

More frequent washing with stronger, more soapy shampoos helps remove oil but damages the hair.  Retinoic acid may be used to reduce oil production. Retinoic acid also stimulates hair growth and increases follicle health. But do not overuse retinoic acid since this can result in scalp irritation.

Hair FolliclesConditioners to Re-glue Hair Cuticles

The outer layer of hair forms cuticles somewhat like fish scales and is shown in the picture to the right. A healthy strand of hair has an outer layer of scales that are laying close above each other. If scales are laying flat, the hair will look shiny, and a comb or brush will glide smoothly.

The cuticles are glued down by mixtures of polypeptides - similar to the yellow liquid collagen glues used by schoolchildren such as LePage's Glue. Shampoos and soaps remove the glue-polypeptides and loosen the cuticle. High quality conditioners add small peptides back into the Hair Damagecuticle to glue it into place again.

A small amount of pantothenic acid (vitamin B-5) is also used which helps with the glue process. If the cuticle stays open it can start a tear (see second photo to the right) in the hair shaft that ultimately leads to breakage of the hair shaft (see third photo to the right).

High quality conditioners also help glue together split hair ends. The longer you leave the conditioner on the hair, the better it smoothes out the hair cuticle. Hair Shaft Damage

Some manufacturers say only to condition for a few seconds, but longer is better.

Many conditioners today contain botanicals and herbal extracts such as extracts of juniper berries and buckhorn leaves and so forth. These herbal extracts interfere with the glue process and reduce the protective effects of the hair conditioners.

Combs with unpolished teeth, sharp hair clamps and tight elastic bands can also disrupt the hair scales and produce damage.

With such a damage, the strand will rip more easily, the opened scales do not allow other strands to glide over as smooth as before, which can result in tangles.

Conditioners should be at a low pH of about 4.0 to 4.7. The hair proteins remain very strong at a low pH. Shampoos - with their higher pH - should be completely rinsed out of hair. Higher pH's start unraveling the protein strands and loosen and break the hair. Conditioners add a small amount of fat to give the hair a better shine.

Hot oil treatment conditioners are the latest marketing ploy from the cosmetic companies. The idea dates back to the 1950's when hot oil treatments were first marketed by Alberto Culver.

The basic idea is that the application of heat drives the conditioners - oils, peptides, etc. - deeper into the hair shaft and the hair looks better for a short time. However, the high heat - about 250 degree F. from a hot air dryer - will ultimately damage the hair follicles - which cannot take heat much about 120 degrees F - and the follicles will produce less hair and thinner hair.

Where to get good shampoos and conditioners? The best products are sold in successful hair salons. The salons need happy, repeat customers and usually do not advertise their products.

Brushing Hair

Brushing is an essential part of healthy hair. Brushing helps keep the scalp healthy and improves the blood circulation which feeds the hair roots (follicles). It also helps distributes the natural protective fats along the length of the hair shafts. These fats serve as lubricants that allow smoother combing without breaking the hair shafts.

Morning brushing is best with a natural hair bristle brush which is similar to your hair structure and less likely to produce tangles on long hair. The brush should have a wooden base that reduces static electricity. If combing, start with a wide tooth tortoise shell comb. Never use a metal or rubber comb.

For brushing, stand with feet a little apart and bend down from your waist until the hair falls in a curtain before your face. Then brush your hair gently, starting from the hair roots at the nape of your neck and moving toward the end of the hair. Follow each brush stroke with a stoke from the open palm of your other hand to help counteract the build up of static electricity. Slowly build up you brushing to 50 strokes a day.

Parting Hair to Improve Facial Features

Some hair stylists recommend parting your hair on the right side. Most people use a left part or a center part. These experts say that hair follicles have a natural tendency to to grow from the left to the right.

A right side part tends to push the hair against this angle and adds more natural "push-up" height to your hair. They say not to use a middle part which puts additional stress on the weakest hairs on the top of the head.

A center part starts a line that goes down the middle of the face and this accentuates the nose and any irregularities that exist between the left and the right sides of your face.

The movie and television industries found this out many years ago. Few people have faces are regular enough to look good in a center part.

Studies on the biological basis (genetically ingrained) for viewing others as beautiful have found that humans highly value, albeit unconsciously, symmetrical facial features.

Yet very few people have truly symmetrical faces. By parting the hair on the side, you distract the mind of other people from focusing on any possible facial irregularities.

Painting of a Lady with Parted Hair

Blonde Hair

If you have Blonde hair, then we would suggest using products containing tin peptides. Copper Peptides may give blonde hair a greenish tint. Washing it out with lemon revert the hair back to it's original color.

Other Helpful Advice:

1. Keep excess heat off the scalp. Blow dryers can boil hair follicles. Also limit use of curling irons, flat irons, and chemical treatments.

2. Be careful of the shampoo products you choose to use and follow with an acidifying conditioner. Use a minimum amount of shampoo and conditioner when washing the hair.

3. Supplements of MSM (2-4 grams daily) and flaxseed oil (4 grams daily) may also help with hair health and vitality.

Women with Long Hair Bathing by Renoir