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Hydrogels for Osteochondral
Tissue Engineering
Journal of Biomedical

(March 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Activity
& Transdermal Delivery
of GHK Peptide
Journal of Peptide Science
(March 2020)
Pulsed Glow Discharge
to GHK-Cu Determination
International Journal
of Mass Spectrometry

(March 2020)
Protective Effects of GHK-Cu
in Pulmonary Fibrosis
Life Sciences
(January 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Benefits
of GHK-Cu Stimulating
Skin Basement Membrane
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
(January 2020)
Structural Analysis
Molecular Dynamics of
Skin Protective
TriPeptide GHK
Journal of Molecular Structure
(January 2020)
In Vitro / In Vivo Studies
pH-sensitive GHK-Cu in
Superabsorbent Polymer
GHK Enhances
Stem Cells Osteogenesis
Acta Biomaterialia
Antibacterial GHK-Cu
Nanoparticles for
Wound Healing
Particle & Particle (2019)
Effect of GHK-Cu
on Stem Cells and
Relevant Genes
OBM Geriatrics
GHK Alleviates
Neuronal Apoptosis Due
to Brain Hemorrhage
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Endogenous Antioxidant
International Journal of Pathophysiology and Pharmacology (2018)
Regenerative and
Protective Actions of
GHK-Cu Peptide
International Journal of
Molecular Sciences
Skin Regenerative and
Anti-Cancer Actions
of Copper Peptides
GHK-Cu Accelerates
Scald Wound Healing
Promoting Angiogenesis
Wound Repair and

GHK Peptide Inhibits
Pulmonary Fibrosis
by Suppressing TGF-β1
Frontiers in Pharmacology
Skin Cancer Therapy
with Copper Peptides
The Effect of Human
Peptide GHK Relevant to
Nervous System Function
and Cognitive Decline
Brain Sciences (2017)
Effects of Tripeptide
GHK in Pain-Induced
Aggressive Behavior
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
GHK-Cu Elicits
In Vitro Alterations
in Extracellular Matrix
Am Journal of Respiratory
and Critical Care Medicine

Selected Biomarkers &
Copper Compounds
Scientific Reports

GHK-Cu on Collagen,
Elastin, and Facial Wrinkles
Journal of Aging Science
Tri-Peptide GHK-Cu
and Acute Lung Injury

Effect of GHK Peptide
on Pain Sensitivity
Experimental Pharmacology

New Data of the
Cosmeceutical and
TriPeptide GHK
SOFW Journal
GHK Peptide as a
Natural Modulator of
Multiple Cellular Pathways
in Skin Regeneration
BioMed Research (2015)
Resetting Skin Genome
Back to Health
Naturally with GHK
Textbook of Aging Skin
GHK-Cu May Prevent
Oxidative Stress in Skin
by Regulating Copper and
Modifying Expression of
Numerous Antioxidant Genes Cosmetics (2015)
GHK Increases
TGF-β1 in
Human Fibroblasts

Acta Poloniae

The Human Skin Remodeling Peptide Induces Anti-Cancer
Expression and DNA Repair Analytical Oncology
Resetting the
Human Genome to Health
BioMed Research
Enhanced Tropic Factor Secretion of Mesenchymal
Stem Cells with GHK
Acta Biomater
Anxiolytic (Anti-Anxiety)
Effects of GHK Peptide
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
Lung Destruction and
its Reversal by GHK
Genome Medicine
TriPeptide GHK Induces
Programmed Cell Death
of Neuroblastoma
Journal of Biotechnology
Stem Cell
Recovering Effect
of GHK in Skin
Peptide Science
Skin Penetration of
Copper Tripeptide in Vitro
Journal of International
Inflammation Research
Possible Therapeutics
for Colorectal Cancer
Journal of Clinical and
Experimental Metastasis
Methods of Controlling
Differentiation and
Proliferation of Stem Cells
Effects of
Copper Tripeptide
on Irradiated Fibroblasts
American Medical Association
Avoid Buying Fake Copper Peptides Dangerous

Mouse with Copper Peptides

Copper Peptides and Hair Growth

Copper ion complexed with certain peptides has both skin repair and hair growth enhancement effects.

The skin of the mouse to the right was shaved, then treated in three spots with Copper Peptides. The result is a much more rapid hair growth (the three circular patches of hair) in the three spots treated with Copper Peptides.

While human hair growth will not respond nearly as dramatically as in mice, skin health and hair follicle function are closely interrelated. New skin appears to arise from the hair follicle. As a person ages, our hair follicles get smaller, producing thinner hair shafts. The blood circulation system that supplies nutrients and oxygen to the hair follicle send fewer blood vessels to the hair follicle, thus inhibiting the vital flow of nutrients to the hair follicle.

Copper-peptide complexes improve skin health and a more healthy skin increases the blood vessel network to the hair follicles resulting in larger follicles that grow hair faster with thicker hair shafts.

When we are young, we have a layer of fat under the skin (part of "baby fat") which is greatly reduced as we age. Hair researchers have noted the accumulation of this fat around healthy follicles that are vigorously growing hair, and its relative lack in around dormant follicles, and have postulated that these cells serve a supportive function for the hair follicle.

In animal studies, copper peptides have reduced or stopped the hair loss associated with chemotherapy for cancer. It must be emphasized that effects in in humans on hair follicle health are not as dramatic.

For scientific studies on copper peptides and hair growth, go to


Copper Peptides Appear to Help Hair Growth

At age 15, your scalp is thick and your hair follicles have a rich blood supply (red and blue) and are surrounded by many subcutaneous fat cells (yellow balls) that are felt to enhance the health of the hair follicles. This produces large hair follicles that produce thick shafts of hair. 

As you age and DHT effects set in, your scalp thins, its blood supply is diminished, and the layer of fat cells narrows. This provide less support and nutrition for your hair follicles. This produces smaller follicles that produce thin hair shafts.

Biologically effective copper peptides help reverse many of these effects. They help re-thicken your scalp, improve the scalp's blood supply, and rebuild subcutaneous fat. This produces a larger follicle that produces thicker hair shafts.

Questions or Advice?

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Call us at 1-800-405-1912 Monday Through Friday (8 am to 6 pm) PST

Calming Actions of CPs on an Irritated Scalp

Copper peptides often calm irritated scalp tissue that has been irritated with other hair growth stimulator such as minoxidil or retinoic acid. When using copper peptides for scalp calming, start with very light applications.

On a very irritated scalp, even gentle copper peptides can cause a brief stinging. But as your scalp repairs itself, it will become more protective and less sensitive to irritation by minoxidil, retinoic acid, or other items.

A Hair Loss Test

Hair experts have a number of suggestions. But remember, people who only want to cut your hair off usually know little about hair.

Count the hairs and put them into an envelope, marking the day and the number of hairs on the envelope. Use a new envelope every day. Do this for a two weeks.

A dermatologist can evaluate the quantity of lost hairs, and can determine whether the hairs are being shed, pulled out, or are breaking along the hair shaft.

When a hair regrowth plan is started, you then have a reference base to determine the plan's success.

Bald Man

Androgenetic Alopecia: Cause of 95% of all hair loss

Androgenetic alopecia or pattern baldness is the most common cause of hair loss is pattern loss, which eventually affects over 70% of men and 15% of women. In classic pattern, hair thins in a horseshoe pattern, although more diffuse loss can also occur.

At least two sequential processes contribute to pattern loss, which begins as an abnormal sensitivity of the hair follicles to androgens of male sex hormones. In most people, this is followed by a local immune reaction to the affected hair follicle, which further damages it and is probably responsible for its eventual death.

Both men and women experience androgenetic alopecia, or pattern hair loss, although men generally experience a much greater degree of loss. In men, the pattern of loss starts with the hairline or back of the head, advances to thin the top of the head, and often leaves just a fringe of hair extending from ear to ear across the back of the head and affects the thinner, shorter, and less pigmented hairs of the frontal and parietal portions of the scalp.

In women, pattern loss tends to be more diffuse, and occurs over a broader area. Women usually do not have bald spots, but rather have overall thinning hair. In diffuse hair loss in men or women, over 50% of the hair can be lost before the results are readily apparent.

Miniaturization of Hair Follicles

The combination of various hormones, diseases, or injuries, and immune effects progressively "miniaturizes" the involved hair follicle. The smaller follicle produces a smaller, thinner hair and has a progressively shorter growth cycle.

The hair becomes shorter and finer with each hair cycle until it finally becomes "peach-fuzz". Thus, pattern loss is actually more a problem of replace ment than of loss.

A major cause of this miniaturization appears to due to the development of striking changes in capillaries surrounding the hair follicles. Comprehensive surveys of the male scalp from birth to senescence find that very significant changes in the structure of the blood vessels of the scalp. The number of the blood capillary loops supplying the hair follicle is greatly diminished. The inadequate subepidermal circulation that can develop as males age does not provide a rich nutrition for the follicle. Strong hair growth requires a large flow of nutrients such as such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids so that the follicle can actively synthesize new hair.

Blood flow impairments to the follicle, and their reversal, may explain why the administration of copper peptides to the scalp increase hair growth and increase the size of hair shafts. It has long been known that certain copper-peptide complexes strongly stimulate angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation. In laboratory hair-growth models using mice, the copper-peptides increase hair follicle volume by 5 to 8-fold. It is likely that these copper-peptides also increase the volume of human hair follicles, although an increase is likely to be smaller than the change in mice. The increase in hair follicle size and the rate of hair growth caused by the administration of copper-peptides may be due to their causing blood flow changes that provide adequate nutrients to the follicle for strong hair growth.

Hair Follicles

Muscle Building, Exercise Training, Androgens and Hair Loss

Anabolic steroids are similar to testosterone and are used to increase muscle mass. They also can produce hair loss along with other side effects.

However, because of the dangers associated with their use, fewer persons are using them.

Even without anabolic steroids, rigorous exercise tends to raise testosterone and, in women, reduce estrogens.

Estrogen levels are lowered in women undergoing severe physical training. This can lead to a stopping of the menstrual cycle.

Thus, severe exercise in both men and women can increase the rate of hair loss.

Alopecia Areata

Alopecia areata, the second major cause of hair loss, generally appears as patchy loss but may also occur as alopecia totalis, which involves the entire scalp, or as alopecia universalis, which involves the entire body.

It occurs most frequently in young and middle-aged adults of both sexes. Although mild erythema may occur initially, affected areas of scalp or skin appear normal. This may be anywhere on the scalp or even the rest of the body.

Alopecia areata is also an autoimmune disease but without the normal hormonal component in pattern loss. In simple terms, white blood cells attack the hair roots resulting in loss of hair.

About 30% of individuals with this problem are aware of a relative with this disorder; thus, there seems also to be a genetic component. At times, scarring (cicatricial) alopecia follows scar tissue formation resulting from inflammation and tissue destruction.

A variety of approaches are currently used for treatment; all are aimed at interrupting the "attack" of white blood cells upon the hair roots.

The major therapies include topical and locally injected corticosteroids; topical minoxidil along with anthralin; various topical irritants or sensitizers; special light treatments (called PUVA); and a number of experimental drugs which alter the immune system.

It cannot be accurately predicted when the condition may become occur. An episode might be precipitated during a illness or a physiologic stress. This type of hair loss may recur at any time.

New patches of hair loss can develop while older patches are being effectively treated. Sometimes hair will regrow spontaneously over a period of months to years - this is less likely with more extensive hair loss.

The areas of hair loss often have spontaneous hair regrowth. The new hair may initially be non-pigmented, with pigment production resuming at a later. Intralesional corticosteroid injections are beneficial for small patches and may produce regrowth in 4 to 6 weeks.

This condition is not transmitted by contact with a person who has it - it is not contagious.

Other Causes of Hair Loss

Inadequate Nutrition

Nutritional deficiencies must be severe to cause hair loss. In situations where hair loss is the result of a nutritional deficiency, other more serious symptoms are usually evident. Nutritional treatments for hair loss are only effective in the rare situations where a nutritional deficiency actually exists.

A deficiency of iron can results in anemia or a reduced amount of red blood cells, and this can contribute to hair loss. Anemic people generally appear pale and weak.

Trauma and Burns

Trauma to hair follicles can result in permanent hair loss. Thermal and chemical burns for example, can kill hair follicles and result in hair loss. Hair straighteners can cause follicle damage and produce serious hair loss.

Thyroid Disease

Thyroid gland irregularities cause hair loss. There is no way to predict which patients will experience hair loss, which will not, and who will be severely affected and who will have only minimal hair loss.

Excessive thyroid hormone production is a condition called hyperthyroidism which results in thin soft hairs that are easily extracted, along with other symptoms.

An under-active thyroid gland causes thyroid hormone deficiency, called hypothyroidism which results in coarse lifeless hairs, that are also easily extracted, along with other symptoms.

Fortunately, hair loss from hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism is usually reversible with proper treatment of the thyroid condition. Typically hair loss does not immediately stop when the blood work becomes normal.

Most people stop losing their hair and begin replacing lost hair a few months after the thyroid hormone levels become normal.

Stress can contribute to hair loss. Thyroid disease can have a direct impact on the psychological well-being of patients, particularly under stress.

Often as patients become more concerned about their hair loss, their stress levels increase, making the situation worse.

Because of the often fragile condition of the scalp and hair follicles, one must be cautious when considering chemical treatments for hair such as coloring or permanent waves.

Cutting the hair shorter, using moisturizing and conditioning hair products, and avoiding back combing decrease stress on the hair.

Physiologic Alopecia

Physiologic alopecia is the sudden hair loss in infants, loss of straight hairline in adolescents, and diffuse hair loss after childbirth. It is usually temporary.


Trichotillomania is the compulsive pulling out of one's own hair. It is most common in children. In trichotillomania, patchy, incomplete areas of hair loss with many broken hairs appear primarily on the scalp but may occur on other areas as well, such as the eyebrows.

In trichotillomania, an occlusive dressing encourages normal hair growth, simply by calling attention to the problem (and to the possible need for psychiatric counseling).

Non-scarring Alopecia

Predisposing factors of non-scarring alopecia also include radiation, many types of drug therapies and drug reactions, bacterial and fungal infections, psoriasis, seborrhea, and endocrine disorders, such as thyroid, parathyroid, and pituitary dysfunction.

Scarring Alopecia

Scarring alopecia causes irreversible hair loss. It may result from physical or chemical trauma, or chronic tension at the hair shaft, such as braiding or rolling the hair.

Diseases that produce alopecia include destructive skin tumors, granulomas, lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, follicular lichen planus, and severe bacterial or viral infections, such as folliculitis or herpes simplex.

Common Drugs, Chemicals, and Conditions that Cause Hair Loss

(Telogen effluvium or toxic effluvium)

At times, hair is lost due to stresses, poisons or medical conditions. Hair loss was reported in patients during the 1918 flu epidemic. The characteristic feature of this type of hair loss is a latent period of several weeks between the inciting event and clinical hair loss.

There is a greater sensitivity of actively growing (anagen) hairs, in contrast to resting hair, to a variety of toxic chemical or physical agents. Indeed, x-ray epilation to rid the scalp of fungus infections was standard therapy. The accidental exposure to poisons or natural products also may cause hair loss. Some cosmetics have produced hair loss.


Agents for gout: Allopurinol (Loporin, Zyloprim)

Anticoagulants (Blood thinner): Coumadin and Heparin

Anticonvulsants for epilepsy: trimethadione (Tridione)

Antidepressants: tricyclics, amphetamines

Antiarthritics: penicillamine, auranofin (Ridaura), indomethacin (Indocin), naproxen (Naprosyn), sulindac (Clinoril), and methotrexate (Folex)

Antithyroid agents: carbimazole, Iodine, thiocyanate, thiouracil

Beta blocker drugs for high blood pressure: atenolol (Tenormin), metoprolol (Lopressor), nadolol (Corgard), propranolol (Inderal) and timolol (Blocadren)

Cancer chemotherapy medications (many)

Cholesterol-lowering drug: clofibrate (Atromid-S) and gemfibrozil (Looped)

Drugs derived from vitamin: Tretinoin (Actuate) and etretinate (Tegison)

Male hormones (anabolic steroids)

Parkinson medications: levodopa (Doper, Larodopa)

Ulcer drugs: Cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Mantic) and Cimetidine (Pepped)

Plants and Foods

Ingestion of the nuts of the monkey pot tree, cocoa de mono (Lecithin Collabra) a deciduous tree widely distributed in Central and South America.

Plants such as Stanley, Astragals pectinatus (locoweed), Lacuna, Mellitus (yellow sweet clover), Colchicum autumnal, Glorious, and Saptaceae (several Brazilian woods of this family).

The amino acid analog, mimosine, from the seeds of the shrubby tree Leucaena glauca. This species is widely established in Hawaii (where it was once planted as fodder for grazing animals) and can be found growing wild in southern Florida.


Salts of lithium, lead, mercury, selenium, bismuth, arsenic, thallium, and borates


Coroprene dimers used in the synthetic rubber industry

Medical Conditions or treatments

In women after giving birth to a child

Discontinuation of oral contraceptives

Tick bites

Radiation: x-rays neutrons, alpha particles

Hair Mites (Demodex Folliculorum)

Demodex is a narrow, wormlike mite that lives in the hair follicles of the scalp, eyelashes, nose and chin of most adults. No one knows what role it plays in hair follicle health although there have been unproved claims that it may cause hair loss.

Certain persons with very reactive immune responses to the mite may suffer hair loss from its presence. However, as with the skin's natural bacteria, it may keep away more harmful parasites.

Dr. William Regelson, of the Medical College of Virginia has recently proposed (February 1998) that Demodex is implicated in hair loss.

He speculates that people who eventually lose their hair and those who do not, however, likely depends on whether the scalp produces an inflammatory reaction in an attempt to reject the mite.

A researcher at Nioxin, a hair-care and cosmetics developer based in Lithium Springs, GA has recently claimed the discovery of Demodex. However, Demodex was first described in 1842, has been the subject of many studies.

While Demodex is associated with many skin conditions, most researchers have concluded that the mite is not a major factor in hair loss. The patterns of hair loss do not correspond with Demodex populations.

However, excessive mites have been associated with loss of eyelashes (Demodex blepharitis).

A 1996 study from the Department of Laboratory Medicine, VA Medical Center in North Carolina, published the results of a found an association between mite populations in the hair follicle and scalp inflammation.

Demodex mites were found in over 40% of follicles with inflammation, but in just 10% of the follicles without inflammation. However, the researchers could not conclude whether Demodex caused the inflammation or preferentially colonized inflamed follicles.

A 1995 study by the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic concluded that while Demodex tend to colonized in the lumen of hair follicles, they do not cause any noticeable pathological conditions.

The most common conditions associated with Demodex is a swelling of the colonized hair follicle. This normally requires up to a dozen mites for swelling to take place but many infested follicles showed no swelling.

Skin conditions associated with Demodex can be easily treated by topical medication. Medications include gentamicin sulfate, an ointment of a 0.5% selenium sulfide cream, 4% pilocarpine gel, an ointment of 10% sulfur and 5% balsam and a gel of 4% pilocarpine gel.

Pilocarpine gel is directly toxic to the mites by constricting their bronchioles and suffocating them. Nioxin sells a Semodex line of products formulated Demodex infestation. The Semodex line of products is available in many hair salons in the US or send an e-mail to if you have trouble locating Semodex in your area.